COVID-19 Vaccines and Bleeding Disorders: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) | National Hemophilia Foundation (2022)

People with bleeding disorders may have questions and concerns related to the variant coronavirus’ causing COVID-19 and the new COVID-19 vaccines, including any implications specific to their conditions.

The following FAQs address some of the most common questions from our community members. Please note that these answers were created for broad purposes and that affected individuals should engage closely with their health care provider to discuss the possibilities of disease signs and symptoms and vaccination, including potential contraindications (if any), and specific questions related to safety and efficacy.

Given the nature of this virus, rapid developments in vaccines, and the ongoing transitions in our federal government, this continues to be a very fluid situation, but COVID-19 vaccines are the best hope for ending the current pandemic. If you have additional questions or need more information, please consult with your healthcare professional.

COVID-19 Vaccine FAQs

1. Have any of the vaccines been approved by the FDA?

One vaccine, the messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine developed by Pfizer-BioNTech has been approved by the United States from the Food and Drug Administration on August 23, 2021, and will be marketed under the trade name of Comirnaty® (koe-mir’-na-tee). Comirnaty is indicated for the prevention of COVID-19 disease in individuals 16 years of age and older. The vaccine also continues to be available under emergency use authorization (EUA), including for individuals 12 through 15 years of age and for the administration of a third dose in certain immunocompromised individuals.

Comirnaty contains mRNA, a kind of genetic material. The mRNA is used by the body to make a mimic of one of the proteins in the virus that causes COVID-19. The result of a person receiving this vaccine is that their immune system will ultimately react defensively to the virus that causes COVID-19. The mRNA in Comirnaty is only present in the body for a short time and is not incorporated into - nor does it alter - an individual’s genetic material. Comirnaty has the same formulation as the EUA vaccine and is administered as a series of two doses, three weeks apart.

More information on prescribing Comirnaty can be found at https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics/comirnaty.

People seeking additional information on can find a vaccine information sheet for Comirnaty at https://www.fda.gov/media/144414/download

2. What is the vaccine emergency use authorization (EUA) in the United States?

Three COVID-19 vaccines – two mRNA vaccines from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna and one recombinant, replication-incompetent human adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector vaccine from Johnson & Johnson/Janssen Biotech, have received emergency use authorization (EUA) in the United States from the Food and Drug Administration and are currently being administered to people in the US. The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine has been approved by the FDA for the prevention of COVID-19 disease in individuals 16 years of age and older (see question 1 above) but remains available for those individuals 12 through 15 years of age and for the administration of a third dose in certain immunocompromised individuals. There are several other vaccines that are in development but have not received EUA. NHF will keep the bleeding disorders community updated as new information becomes available.

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine received emergency use authorization (EUA) on December 11, 2020 for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in individuals 16 years of age and older. The vaccine contains a nucleoside-modified messenger RNA (modRNA) encoding the viral spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 formulated in lipid particles. The dosing regimen is two doses of 0.3 mL each, 3 weeks apart. The vaccine does not contain a preservative. The most commonly reported side effects, which typically lasted several days, were pain at the injection site, tiredness, headache, muscle pain, chills, joint pain, and fever. Of note, more people experienced these side effects after the second dose than after the first dose, so it is important for vaccination providers and recipients to expect that there may be some side effects after either dose, but even more so after the second dose. On May 10, 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration expanded the emergency use authorization (EUA) for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to include adolescents 12 through 15 years of age. The FDA amended the EUA originally issued on Dec. 11, 2020 for administration in individuals 16 years of age and older. The vaccine was well tolerated, with side effects generally consistent with those observed in participants 16 to 25 years of age and was very effective in preventing COVID-19 disease. Furthermore, the vaccine elicited high levels of neutralizing antibodies demonstrating strong immunogenicity in a subset of adolescents one month after the second dose.

On December 18, 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued an EUA for the second vaccine for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The emergency use authorization allows the Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine to be distributed in the U.S for use in individuals 18 years of age and older. The vaccine contains a nucleoside-modified messenger RNA encoding the viral spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 formulated in lipid particles. The dosing regimen is two doses of 0.5 mL each, one month apart. The vaccine does not contain a preservative. The most commonly reported side effects, which typically lasted several days, were pain at the injection site, tiredness, headache, muscle pain, chills, joint pain, swollen lymph nodes in the same arm as the injection, nausea and vomiting, and fever. Of note, more people experienced these side effects after the second dose than after the first dose, so it is important for vaccination providers and recipients to expect that there may be some side effects after either dose, but even more so after the second dose. Back in June, Moderna announced it would start “rolling submission” of data to the FDA for approval under a request for a Priority Review. This designation would call for the FDA to make a decision within six months rather than the typical 10-month waiting period.

The Janssen Biotech vaccine received emergency use authorization on February 27, 2021 from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the third vaccine for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The EUA allows the Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine to be distributed in the U.S. for use in individuals 18 years of age and older.to prevent COVID-19. The vaccine contains a recombinant, replication-incompetent human adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector, encoding the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike (S) glycoprotein, stabilized in its pre-fusion form. The dosing regimen is a single dose of 0.5 mL, the vaccine does not contain a preservative. The most commonly reported side effects with this vaccine were pain at the injection site, headache, fatigue, muscle aches and nausea. Most of these side effects occurred within 1-2 days following vaccination and were mild to moderate in severity and lasted 1-2 days. Johnson & Johnson has not started the approval process yet.

For more information on the COVID-19 vaccines and the regulatory process please visit the FDA website on COVID-19 vaccines.

3. How can I prepare for my COVID-19 Vaccine?

To learn more about vaccines including those to prevent COVID-19, you may want to visit www.vaccines.gov for more information and to receive email updates on the vaccines. This website is available in Spanish and has a vaccine finder to help you locate sites in your state or territory.

Before receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, you may be asked questions about your history of bleeding and your bleeding disorder. Below are some of the questions you may be asked, and an explanation as to why the people administering the vaccine might ask them. These questions should not deter anyone from receiving a vaccine. If you have a question about your specific situation, be sure to discuss it with your hematologist.

(Video) Educational Webinar: COVID-19 & Bleeding Disorders

4. What about COVID-19 vaccines for kids?

Both the FDA and CDC have approved the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for children ages 5 and younger, and the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for those ages 4 and under.

The Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine is administered as a primary series of two doses, one month apart, to individuals 6 months through 17 years of age. The vaccine is also authorized to provide a third primary series dose at least one month following the second dose for individuals in this age group who have been determined to have certain kinds of immunocompromise.

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine is administered as a primary series of three doses in which the initial two doses are administered three weeks apart followed by a third dose administered at least eight weeks after the second dose in individuals 6 months through 4 years of age.

Common side effects for children can include pain at the injection site, fatigue, headaches, muscle and joint pain, and fever. Most commonly, side effects tend to be mild and usually only last a day or two. If your child experiences any unusual or severe symptoms, contact your pediatrician or urgent care.

5. How do I talk to my kids about the COVID-19 vaccine?

Consult your pediatrician before talking with your child so you can have all the latest information. Then, ask your child to share how they feel about the COVID-19 vaccine and their health. Engage in a serious and supportive conversation where you can address fears and map out the potential benefits or side effects of receiving a vaccine. Invite them to speak with their pediatrician for additional information.

6. Do I still need to wear a mask after vaccination?

Masks are proven to help reduce the spread of COVID-19. Even after vaccination, it’s encouraged to wear a mask when indoors or in crowded situations to keep yourself and others safe.

7. Do I need a booster shot?

Different COVID-19 vaccinations have varying schedules for booster shots. Talk to your physician or pharmacist for when your booster shot should be scheduled, and what you need to know to prepare. Booster shots are an important part of protecting your health and stopping the spread of COVID-19.

COVID-19 Vaccine Screening Questions

Below are suggestions of questions to raise with your health care provider to see if a COVID-19 vaccine is right for you.

1. Do you have a bleeding disorder or have any issues with bleeding?

A bleeding disorder neither increases the risk for getting coronavirus infection nor having a serious infection, being hospitalized, or dying if you are infected.

Likewise, having a bleeding disorder is not a reason to avoid getting the vaccine. Following precautions such as infusing with a factor replacement product prior to or right after the vaccination and applying pressure for 10 minutes after the vaccination should be considered. Contact your hematologist or healthcare professional to plan to safely receive the vaccine.

Patients receiving emicizumab may be vaccinated by intra-muscular injection at any time without receiving an additional dose of FVIII. Patients with von Willebrand disease or a rare bleeding disorders should consult with their hematologist regarding special precautions prior to receiving the vaccination. All rare bleeding disorder patients (including those with thrombocytopenia and/or platelet function disorders) should be vaccinated. Patients on warfarin should have prothrombin time testing performed within 72 hours prior to injection to determine international normalized ratio (INR); if results are stable and within the therapeutic range, they can be vaccinated intramuscularly.

2. Have you or are you currently receiving any monoclonal antibody treatments?
You may be asked this question before you receive the vaccine. Receiving emicizumab is not a reason not to receive a vaccine to prevent COVID-19 infection. Emicizumab is a monoclonal antibody that is used to prevent bleeding in people with hemophilia A. Other monoclonal antibodies have been and are being developed as treatments for COVID-19 infections. You can and should receive a vaccine even if you are taking emicizumab to prevent bleeding.

3. Are you taking any medications with one of the following ingredients……one of those ingredients being a PEG?
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a stabilizer that is used in many medications including plasma derived and recombinant factor products. Factor products that use PEG to extend the half-life of the factor product or any factor products are not a reason to not take a vaccine unless you have had a reaction to PEG. If you have a question about this please talk with your hematologist or healthcare professional.

(Video) COVID 19 Vaccines: What to Expect

Frequently Asked COVID-19 Questions

1. What is an “Emergency Use Authorization” (EUA)?

An Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) is a mechanism to facilitate the availability and use of medical countermeasures, including vaccines, during public health emergencies, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. Under an EUA, FDA may allow the use of unapproved medical products in an emergency to diagnose, treat, or prevent serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions such as infection with the virus that causes COVID-19 disease when certain statutory criteria have been met, including that there are no adequate, approved, and available alternatives.

2. These vaccines were developed very fast. Are they safe?

It is true that the Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna and Janssen Biotech vaccines have been developed very quickly. But the technology behind the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines is not new. They both are what are called mRNA vaccines, which function very differently than the types of vaccines used in the past. mRNA vaccines, rather than using a weak or ineffective sample of the virus to trigger antibodies – like in a flu shot – mRNA vaccines instruct your cells to create a harmless protein (called “spike” protein) that your body recognizes as foreign, creating an immune system response. Scientific papers describing this mRNA technology, discovered by Hungarian scientist Katalin Karikó (who oversees mRNA work for BioNTech) were first published in 2005. The Janssen Biotech vaccine uses a different mechanism of action, a recombinant, replication-incompetent human adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector, encoding the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike (S) glycoprotein. All three vaccines are designed to tell your body how to make the Spike protein, part of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

3. Is it safe for a person with a bleeding disorder to receive the COVID vaccine?

If you have a bleeding disorder, there are no contraindications to being vaccinated with any of the three vaccines now available via EUA status for intramuscular administration. It should be noted that, immune tolerance therapy, treatment for hepatitis C, and HIV and other conditions including the use of immunosuppressive agents do not preclude a person from receiving the available vaccines. For patients in a clinical study, vaccination should be reported to the study investigators.

4. Is it safe for people with low platelets or ITP, or platelet function disorders to receive the COVID vaccine?

For thosewith pre-existing ITP (even if you don’t take medicine for your ITP and even if your platelet count is normal), consult your hematologist and obtain a platelet count prior to vaccination. Your hematologist may advise you as to whether and when your platelet count should be checked after the first and/or second vaccination in addition to the baseline value.

Patients with low platelet disorders like ITP should take extra precautions when receiving the vaccine to prevent hematoma formation. A fine gauge needle (25 or 27 gauge) should be used for the vaccination, followed by pressure on the site, without rubbing, for at 10 minutes.

For persons with other low platelet disorders or platelet function disorders (like Glanzmann thrombasthenia, Hermansky Pudlak syndrome, Grey Platelet syndrome), the recommendations for preparing for the vaccine may be similar or identical as those for persons with ITP. Persons with other platelet disorders should also consult with their hematologist prior to receiving the COVID-19 vaccine.

For persons with platelet disorders caused by medications (such as aspirin, clopidogrel, ticagrelor), follow the recommendations for persons with platelet function disorders (above). Always consult your hematologist or cardiologist for advice on how best to prepare for the COVID-19 vaccine.

Patients with ITP or other low platelet disorders should not hesitate to be vaccinated based on available information. Patients that are unsure about getting the vaccine should consult with their hematologist or another physician before proceeding.

5. Would I be in a priority group to receive the vaccine with a bleeding disorder?

Because people with bleeding disorders are not at a greater risk of contracting COVID-19 or developing a severe form of the disease, they are generally not considered a priority group. General selection rules will apply for those with a bleeding disorder. Bleeding disorder patients in the risk groups identified by age, state of health, health care or other essential worker will be vaccinated as a priority like others in the general population with the same risks. Priority groups will vary by state.

6. Is there a particular type of vaccine I should choose?

Currently there is no reason to choose a particular type of vaccine. If you are considering enrolling in a gene therapy clinical trial, you should avoid any vaccines that use a modified adeno-associated virus (AAV) since these viruses are used in gene therapy. No vaccinations currently authorized are using AAV vectors or viruses. The Janssen Biotech vaccine contains a type of a human adenovirus. Adenovirus is NOT used in hemophilia or any form of gene therapy and therefore is not a concern for our community including those who are considering receiving gene therapy in the future.

7. Will I have a bleed if I receive the vaccination?

The vaccination is administered intra-muscularly but the smallest gauge needle should be used (25-27 gauge), if possible. Some vaccines must be administered using the accompanying needle–syringe combination, and so the use of an alternative needle may not be possible or desirable.

(Video) Dear Addy - Vexed About Vaccines

It would be preferable for you to infuse with a factor replacement product prior to or right after the vaccination and applying pressure for 10 minutes after the vaccination. Patients receiving emicizumab may be vaccinated by intra-muscular injection at any time without receiving an additional dose of FVIII. Patients with von Willebrand disease or a rare bleeding disorder should consult with their hematologist regarding special precautions prior to receiving the vaccination. All rare bleeding disorder patients (including those with thrombocytopenia and/or platelet function disorders) should be vaccinated. Patients on warfarin should have prothrombin time testing performed within 72 hours prior to injection to determine international normalized ratio (INR); if results are stable and within the therapeutic range, they can be vaccinated intramuscularly. Patients receiving other anticoagulants, such as enoxaparin, apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban should consult their prescribing doctor or practitioner for advice on how to safely prepare for the COVID-19 vaccine.

Following the vaccination, the area should be monitored for hematoma formation immediately for 10 minutes to reduce bleeding and swelling and by self-inspection 2-4 hours later at home to ensure that there is no delayed hematoma. Discomfort at the injection site is to be expected. Discomfort in the arm felt for 1-2 days after injection should not be alarming unless it worsens and is accompanied by swelling.

Any adverse events should be reported to the physician and any allergic reactions need to be reported immediately to your physician or you need to go to the emergency room. To read more about vaccinations in general see NHF’s Medical and Scientific Advisory Council’s recommendation, Recommendations on Administration of Vaccines to Individuals with Bleeding Disorders.

8. Will the vaccines change my DNA?

mRNA vaccines do not interact with a person’s DNA or cause genetic changes because the mRNA does not enter the nucleus of the cell, which is where our DNA is kept.

The Janssen Biotech COVID-19 Vaccine is a viral vector vaccine, meaning it uses a modified version of a different virus (the vector) to deliver important instructions to our cells. Viral vector technology has been used by Janssen for other vaccine development programs. Vaccines that use the same viral vector have been given to pregnant people in all trimesters of pregnancy, including in a large-scale Ebola vaccination trial. No adverse pregnancy-related outcomes, including adverse outcomes that affected the infant, were associated with vaccination in these trials.

9. Should I take the vaccination if I am pregnant or breastfeeding?

Getting vaccinated is a personal choice. Any of the currently authorized COVID-19 vaccines can be offered to people who are pregnant or breastfeeding. If you have questions about getting vaccinated, a conversation with your healthcare provider might help, but is not required.

Following an extensive evidence review, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that COVID-19 vaccines should not be withheld from pregnant individuals. Similarly, COVID-19 vaccines should be offered to women who are breast feeding.

Currently, there is limited data on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, although studies are planned. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the FDA have safety monitoring systems in place to capture information about vaccination during pregnancy and will closely monitor reports. Individuals who are pregnant and considering vaccination for COVID-19 are encouraged to speak with their clinicians. According to the CDC, key considerations that should inform these conversations include likely exposure to the virus that causes COVID-19; risks of COVID-19 to the pregnant patients and their fetus; and current knowledge about available vaccines including efficacy, known side effects, and the lack of available data in this population.

Additionally, mRNA vaccines do not interact with a person’s DNA or cause genetic changes because the mRNA does not enter the nucleus of the cell, which is where our DNA is kept.

The Janssen Biotech COVID-19 Vaccine is a viral vector vaccine, meaning it uses a modified version of a different virus (the vector) to deliver important instructions to our cells. Viral vector technology has been used by Janssen for other vaccine development programs. Vaccines that use the same viral vector have been given to pregnant people in all trimesters of pregnancy, including in a large-scale Ebola vaccination trial. No adverse pregnancy-related outcomes, including adverse outcomes that affected the infant, were associated with vaccination in these trials.

10. Are the vaccines effective against the new variants of COVID-19?

All three vaccines currently having EUA in the US target the Spike protein and are designed to produce an immune response against the Spike protein in the SARS-CoV-2 virus. As the virus mutates or changes, these changes may be in the Spike protein causing the vaccines to be less effective against these mutated strains of the virus. A recent study from the New York Blood Center published in Science Magazine examined the efficacy of the Pfizer, Janssen Biotech and Moderna vaccines to combat variants of the virus. The data suggest that the three vaccines are probably effective against COVID-19 variants, however, the efficacy of the vaccines will need to be reexamined as new strains emerge.

11. When will the vaccine be available for younger children below age 12 years?

Research studies are currently underway to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the both the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines in children 6 months to 11 years of age. It’s too soon to predict the outcome of these studies and if or when they might be authorized for use in young children.

For more information on the COVID-19 vaccines and the regulatory process please visit the FDA website on COVID-19 vaccines.

Helpful COVID-19 Resources:

CDC Pre-vaccine screening questionnaire

(Video) COVID-19 Vaccines and People with Bleeding Disorders: Safety and Accessibility

CDC FAQs on Vaccinating Children

How COVID-19 Vaccines Work (CDC)

COVID-19: Mitigation, Treatment, and Vaccines (NHF Webinar)

MASAC Document 221 – Recommendations on Administration of Vaccines to Individuals with Bleeding Disorders.

Fact Sheet for Recipients and Caregivers – EUA of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine to prevent Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Individuals 16 Years of Age and Older

Fact Sheet for Recipients and Caregivers – EUA of the Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine to Prevent Coronavirus Disease 2019 in individuals 18 Years of Age and Older

Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine EUA Fact Sheet for Recipients and Caregivers (fda.gov)

COVID-19 Vaccination Considerations for People Who Are Pregnant (CDC)

https://pdsa.org/covid-19#covid-vaccine

ISTH Interim Guidance for the Diagnosis and Treatment on Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia

Frequently Asked Questions on Vaccine-induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT) (ASH)

COVID-19 and Blood Clotting (National Blood Clot Alliance)

WFH-EHC April 12, 2021 Statement on COVID-19 Vaccinations

Additional COVID-19 Vaccine Resources

Information for Parents of Children and Adolescents

  • COVID-19 Vaccines for Children and Teens provides information about the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines for adolescents aged 12 and older, how to find a vaccination provider for adolescents, and what to expect during and after vaccination.
  • Fact sheet: COVID-19 Vaccines for Preteens and Teens is a printable fact sheet for parents that explains the benefits of a COVID-19 vaccine for their children, safety information, and what to expect during and after vaccination.
  • Frequently asked questions: Two new FAQs have been posted to address questions about the safety and benefits of COVID-19 vaccination for adolescents aged 12 and older.
  • Myth-buster about menstrual cycles: Your menstrual cycle cannot be affected by being near someone who received a COVID-19 vaccine. This question and answer explains why.
  • Myth-buster about infertility: It is safe for people who would like to have a baby one day to get a COVID-19 vaccine. This question and answer explains why.
  • Key things to know: The web pages Key Things to Know about COVID-19 Vaccines and About COVID-19 Vaccines have been updated to include the recommendation that adolescents aged 12 and older get vaccinated.
  • Vaccine information for specific groups: The web page COVID-19 Vaccine Information for Specific Groups has been updated to help the public find information about vaccination for adolescents.

Information for Health Care and Vaccine Providers

  • Pediatric toolkit: The Pediatric Healthcare Professionals COVID-19 Vaccination Toolkit provides materials to help healthcare providers give parents clear and accurate information about COVID-19 vaccines. The toolkit includes answers to common questions, an explanation of how mRNA vaccines work, and printable materials to give to parents.
  • FAQs about consent for minors: FAQs have been posted on the Pfizer-BioNTech product page for providers with information about consent, prescreening questions, and other issues related to the vaccination of minors.
  • Sample patient letter: Healthcare providers can customize and send this sample letter to encourage their patients to get a COVID-19 vaccine. It includes the new recommendation that everyone aged 12 and up get a COVID-19 vaccination.
  • Recipient education page: The Vaccine Recipient Education page has been updated to include resources about COVID-19 vaccination for adolescents.

Information for Community Groups and Health Departments

Last revised: July 6, 2022

FAQs

Can you have the Covid vaccine if you have haemophilia? ›

Can I still have the COVID vaccine? Yes. No complications have been found between emicizumab (Hemlibra) and the COVID-19 vaccine. You do not need any additional factor concentrate on the day of your vaccine.

Is it normal to bleed during Vaccines? ›

Bruising-with or without hematoma formation-or very light bleeding can occur at the injection site. Discomfort at the injection site is to be expected and may last up to several days.

Does the Moderna shot for Covid cause blood clots? ›

Do COVID-19 vaccines cause blood clots? The Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccines have not been shown to increase the risk of blood clots in multiple studies.

Can you get the Covid vaccine if you have von Willebrand? ›

Patients with von Willebrand disease or a rare bleeding disorder should consult with their hematologist regarding special precautions prior to receiving the vaccination. All rare bleeding disorder patients (including those with thrombocytopenia and/or platelet function disorders) should be vaccinated.

Is it normal to bleed when you have Covid? ›

Bleeding is less common than thrombosis in patients with COVID-19, but it may occur, especially in the setting of anticoagulation. Bleeding diathesis is likely multifactorial, related to the COVID-19 illness severity or anticoagulation.

What are bleeding disorders? ›

Bleeding disorders are a group of disorders that share the inability to form a proper blood clot. Symptoms include extended bleeding after injury, surgery, trauma, or menstruation. Sometimes the bleeding is spontaneous, without a known or identifiable cause.

How do you stop bleeding from the injection site? ›

Bleeding at the site can be contained by applying pressure until bleeding has stopped and then covering the site with an adhesive bandage or compress. Some patients may develop a low- grade fever after receiving an injection, which is usually self-limiting, but this can be treated with antipyretics, if needed.

Can the Covid vaccine put you into menopause? ›

Myth: COVID-19 vaccines cause changes in menstruation and menopause. Truth: Many factors can affect menstruation, like stress, sleep, changes in weight, infections, and many diseases. There is no current evidence that vaccines directly cause menstrual irregularities or early menopause.

Can you take aspirin after Covid vaccine? ›

If you experience side effects after getting vaccinated, it is safe to take these drugs as needed to treat pain. Patients routinely taking low-dose aspirin or anti-inflammatory medications may continue to take these medications as recommended.

Can you get the Covid vaccine if you are on blood thinners? ›

Is the vaccine safe for people taking blood thinners like clopidogrel or other antiplatelet drugs? Yes, the vaccine is safe for people taking clopidogrel and other antiplatelet medications. You may experience a little more bruising around the injection site.

Does Covid vaccine affect red blood cell count? ›

Partial vaccination did not alleviate the anemia, but fully vaccinated patients demonstrated higher RBC counts and lower RDWs with significance, albeit the patient ratios with deranged hematological data showed no difference from those without vaccination.

Does Covid cause blood clots in the brain? ›

As COVID-19 traveled across Europe and hit hard in New York City, word began to spread of patients riddled with clots in their brain, hearts, lungs and legs—and sometimes all over.

Can factor 7 deficiency be cured? ›

You can expect a good outcome with proper treatment. Inherited factor VII deficiency is a lifelong condition. The outlook for acquired factor VII deficiency depends on the cause. If it is caused by liver disease, the outcome depends on how well your liver disease can be treated.

How do vaccines help the body against infection? ›

How do vaccines work? Vaccines help your immune system fight infections faster and more effectively. When you get a vaccine, it sparks your immune response, helping your body fight off and remember the germ so it can attack it if the germ ever invades again.

How do you test for von Willebrand disease? ›

Diagnostic Tests

The blood tests that a doctor can order to diagnose VWD (or another platelet disorder) include: Factor VIII clotting activity―To measure the amount of factor VIII in the blood. Von Willebrand factor antigen―To measure the amount of VWF in the blood.

How does Covid damage blood vessels? ›

By attacking those cells, COVID-19 infection causes vessels to leak and blood to clot. Those changes in turn spark inflammation throughout the body and fuel the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) responsible for most patient deaths.

How does Covid affect blood cells? ›

One symptom of this disease is a reduction in the number of cells called lymphocytes in your blood. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that fights infections. With fewer lymphocytes, the body cannot effectively fight back against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

What causes black blood? ›

Black. Black blood can appear at the beginning or end of a person's period. The color is typically a sign of old blood or blood that has taken longer to leave the uterus and has had time to oxidize, first turning brown or dark red and then eventually becoming black.

What are 3 types of bleeding? ›

There are three main types of bleeding: arterial, venous, and capillary bleeding. These get their names from the blood vessel that the blood comes from. Additionally, bleeding can be either external, such as what comes from a minor skin scrape, or internal, such as what comes from an injury to an organ or bone.

How do you stop bleeding from hemophilia? ›

Apply pressure with sterile gauze, a bandage, or a clean cloth. Place another bandage over the first if blood soaks through the bandage, and continue to apply pressure. Raise the injured body part to slow bleeding.

Which is the most serious type of bleeding? ›

Arterial bleeding, also called pulsatile bleeding, is the most serious type of bleeding. It's usually caused by major injuries. Since arterial blood flows from the heart, it's oxygenated and bright red.

Why do I bleed after injections? ›

None of them are a cause for concern, or a reflection on your injection technique. If you see blood at the injection site after the needle is removed, you likely nicked a small blood vessel at or below the skin surface, and blood is following the needle track out to the surface.

Does salt stop bleeding? ›

Rubbing your wound with some salt might sound like a nightmare with lots of pain, but it can be quite the opposite. Salt helps to absorb blood which also helps to dry, close and heal an open wound at a faster rate.

What is breakthrough bleeding? ›

Breakthrough bleeding refers to vaginal bleeding or spotting that occurs between menstrual periods or while pregnant. The blood is usually either light red or dark reddish brown, much like the blood at the beginning or end of a period.

Can the Covid vaccine affect periods? ›

A range of menstrual disorders have been reported after all three of the COVID-19 vaccines including heavier than usual periods, delayed periods and unexpected vaginal bleeding.

Can the Covid vaccine affect hormones? ›

The findings of this study suggest that COVID-19 vaccination can lengthen the menstrual cycle and that this effect may be mediated by ovarian hormones. However, importantly, it found that the menstrual cycle returns to its pre-vaccination length in unvaccinated cycles.

What does it mean if you start bleeding years after menopause? ›

Postmenopausal bleeding is vaginal bleeding that occurs a year or more after your last menstrual period. It can be a symptom of vaginal dryness, polyps (noncancerous growths) or other changes in your reproductive system. In about 10% of women, bleeding after menopause is a sign of uterine cancer.

Does COVID thicken the blood? ›

Coronavirus Blood Clots

Some people infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop abnormal blood clotting. “In some people with COVID-19, we're seeing a massive inflammatory response, the cytokine storm that raises clotting factors in the blood,” says Galiatsatos, who treats patients with COVID-19.

Do blood thinners help COVID? ›

"Blood Thinners May Help Patients with Severe COVID-19 Infections, Study Finds" Blood thinning drugs could help save some patients who are the most severely affected by the new coronavirus, doctors reported Wednesday.

Which Covid vaccine is the safest? ›

The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are strongly recommended as safe and effective at preventing serious illness or death from COVID-19.

Can you get blood clots after COVID-19? ›

Researchers found that the first week after a COVID-19 diagnosis, the risk of an arterial blood clot – the kind that could cause a heart attack or ischemic stroke by blocking blood flow to the heart or brain – was nearly 22 times higher than in someone without COVID-19.

How do you prevent blood clots naturally? ›

Eating Healthy

Instead, consume natural blood-thinners, like cinnamon, turmeric, garlic, and cayenne peppers, to reduce your risk of blood clots. You can also incorporate moderate amounts of grape juice and red wine into your diet. Consuming kiwis and virgin olive oil can also prevent blood clot formation.

How do u prevent blood clots? ›

Preventing Blood Clots
  1. Wear loose-fitting clothes, socks, or stockings.
  2. Raise your legs 6 inches above your heart from time to time.
  3. Wear special stockings (called compression stockings) if your doctor prescribes them.
  4. Do exercises your doctor gives you.
  5. Change your position often, especially during a long trip.

Can a bloody nose affect a Covid test? ›

Turn the swab round 5 times. If your nose starts to bleed, you must stop doing the test. Put the swab into the plastic tube.

Should someone with anemia get the Covid vaccine? ›

Patients with Hemoglobin disorders, chronic iron deficiency or autoimmune hemolytic anemia. 2) There is no contraindication for splenectomized patients to being given the COVID-19 vaccine.

Does Covid cause platelets to drop? ›

In the early stage, platelet count can dynamically reflect the pathophysiological changes in COVID-19 patients. Early decrease in platelet count was associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19.

What are the first signs of a blood clot? ›

Symptoms of a blood clot include: throbbing or cramping pain, swelling, redness and warmth in a leg or arm. sudden breathlessness, sharp chest pain (may be worse when you breathe in) and a cough or coughing up blood.

How do you check for blood clots? ›

Duplex ultrasonography is an imaging test that uses sound waves to look at the flow of blood in the veins. It can detect blockages or blood clots in the deep veins. It is the standard imaging test to diagnose DVT. A D-dimer blood test measures a substance in the blood that is released when a clot breaks up.

What does a blood clot feel like? ›

A blood clot in a leg vein may cause pain, warmth and tenderness in the affected area. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in the body, usually in the legs. Deep vein thrombosis can cause leg pain or swelling. Sometimes there are no noticeable symptoms.

What is F7 blood test? ›

This is a next generation sequencing (NGS) test appropriate for individuals with clinical signs and symptoms, suspicion of, or family history of Factor VII Deficiency. Sequence variants and/or copy number variants (deletions/duplications) within the F7 gene will be detected with >99% sensitivity.

What deficiency causes blood to not clot? ›

What is Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding or VKDB? Vitamin K deficiency bleeding or VKDB, occurs when babies cannot stop bleeding because their blood does not have enough Vitamin K to form a clot.

What is factor 10 blood disorder? ›

Factor X (ten) deficiency is a disorder caused by a lack of a protein called factor X in the blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation).

What are eight diseases which vaccines can prevent? ›

  • Polio. Polio is a crippling and potentially deadly infectious disease that is caused by poliovirus. ...
  • Tetanus. Tetanus causes painful muscle stiffness and lockjaw and can be fatal. ...
  • The Flu (Influenza) ...
  • Hepatitis B. ...
  • Hepatitis A. ...
  • Rubella. ...
  • Hib. ...
  • Measles.
15 Sept 2022

What happens in your body when you get a vaccine? ›

Responds by making antibodies to the germ in the vaccine, just as it would for the real germ. Remembers the germ and how to destroy it. That way, if you are ever exposed to the disease-causing germ in the future, your immune system will be able to quickly destroy it before it has a chance to make you sick.

Is there a cure for haemophilia? ›

There is currently no cure for hemophilia. Effective treatments do exist, but they are expensive and involve lifelong injections several times per week to prevent bleeding.

Is Bleeding time increased in hemophilia? ›

This study indicates that the majority of patients with hemophilia A have prolonged bleeding times.

Can Covid cause von Willebrand disease? ›

COVID-19 is associated with a hypercoagulable state with increased VTE rate. COVID-19 patients frequently have very high von Willebrand factor (vWF) and factor VIIIc levels that are comparable to those seen in ICU patients with severe sepsis.

Can factor 7 deficiency be cured? ›

You can expect a good outcome with proper treatment. Inherited factor VII deficiency is a lifelong condition. The outlook for acquired factor VII deficiency depends on the cause. If it is caused by liver disease, the outcome depends on how well your liver disease can be treated.

Can Haemophiliacs have injections? ›

People with haemophilia A can be treated on-demand with injections of octocog alfa or a medicine called desmopressin. Desmopressin is a synthetic hormone. It works by stimulating the production of clotting factor VIII (8) and is usually given by injection.

Is it normal for a baby to bleed after shots? ›

Bleeding as an adverse event following immunization (AEFI) that is rarely reported in children, although it can be a parental concern. Bleeding episodes ranging in severity from mild to severe and defined as any external and/or internal bleeding can be caused by acquired or hereditary disorders.

Does von Willebrand disease affect pregnancy? ›

Women with VWD are at risk for serious bleeding after delivery. During any pregnancy, the body makes higher amounts of clotting factors to prevent bleeding. However, the high levels of clotting factors during pregnancy drop back to lower levels after delivery.

What is F7 blood test? ›

This is a next generation sequencing (NGS) test appropriate for individuals with clinical signs and symptoms, suspicion of, or family history of Factor VII Deficiency. Sequence variants and/or copy number variants (deletions/duplications) within the F7 gene will be detected with >99% sensitivity.

What deficiency causes blood to not clot? ›

What is Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding or VKDB? Vitamin K deficiency bleeding or VKDB, occurs when babies cannot stop bleeding because their blood does not have enough Vitamin K to form a clot.

What is factor 10 blood disorder? ›

Factor X (ten) deficiency is a disorder caused by a lack of a protein called factor X in the blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation).

How do you stop a hemophilia bleed? ›

Apply pressure to the bleeding area. Use an ice pop or piece of ice on the area. When the bleeding stops, help your child avoid hard or hot foods because they can restart the bleeding. If the bleeding does not stop within 20 minutes, call your care team.

How long can you live with hemophilia? ›

Life expectancy in hemophilia varies, depending on whether patients receive appropriate treatment. Many patients still die before adulthood due to inadequate treatment. With proper treatment, life expectancy is only about 10 years less than healthy men.

What happens if im injection hit blood vessel? ›

If you see blood in the syringe, you have hit a blood vessel. If you hit a vessel, pull the needle out of the skin. Get rid of the needle and syringe, and prepare a new syringe with medicine. Insert the new needle in a different spot, and check again to see if there is blood.

How do you stop bleeding from the injection site? ›

Bleeding at the site can be contained by applying pressure until bleeding has stopped and then covering the site with an adhesive bandage or compress. Some patients may develop a low- grade fever after receiving an injection, which is usually self-limiting, but this can be treated with antipyretics, if needed.

What is a black box warning vitamin K? ›

It was found that people could have severe, life-threatening allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) if they got a large dose of vitamin K too rapidly through an IV. This type of dose would usually be given to patients with significant bleeding who were being treated with anticoagulants (anticoagulant reversal).

What is vitamin K vaccine? ›

VKDB is a bleeding disorder in babies. It can be prevented by a single shot of vitamin K shortly after birth. Without this shot, VKDB can be fatal for a baby even if there is no physical injury to the baby. VKDB happens when babies cannot stop bleeding because their blood does not have enough vitamin K to form a clot.

Videos

1. Ask The Experts: Coping During COVID-19
(National Hemophilia Foundation)
2. HFA’s COVID-19 Vaccine Forum
(Hemophilia Federation of America)
3. COVID-19: Mitigation, Treatment and Vaccines
(National Hemophilia Foundation)
4. COVID-19: What's Now, What's Next
(National Hemophilia Foundation)
5. COVID-19 Treatment and Vaccination for PWBDs
(WFHcommunications)
6. World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) - Best practices for COVID-19 vaccination (summary)
(WFHcommunications)

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